From GEWar Manual
Much of this game is about politics and knowing who your friends and enemies should be. When you first start this game, exchanging Private Messages (PMs) and chatting with other members is the wisest thing to do. Watching the the Latest Activity page can also help you understand who are friends and who are enemies.
Clearly the reading and posting on the forum is also a valuable method of understanding some of the players and their thinking. Naturally the posts are not all honest or accurate and there is an element of gamesmanship at stake too - the ability to take things with a pinch of salt would be a useful addition to your armory!
As you advance in the game, and join up with an alliance, you would become more familiar with its politics. Usually the leaders and certain other members of an alliance are responsible for its politics. An alliance can be in war with other alliances, they can have a non-aggression pact (often called NAP, an agreement of staying neutral and not attacking each other) or they could be allied in a coalition against a common enemy. NAPs, coalition treaties and similar agreements are often made for a certain period only, they can be denounced or broken, allies can be become enemies or other way round and so on.
The relations between different alliances might be difficult to discover for a new player, usually these agreements are not officially made public but can be seen from the battlefield, who is attacking who and who is arguing against which player on the forum for example.